Current and new applications of brain stimulation that would benefit from this project include:
  • Research: fundamental cognitive psychology/neuroscience. Plasticity of the human brain can also be measured now with repetitive TMS (and variants of the technique, e.g. theta-burst stimulation, paired associative stimulation).
  • Diagnosis: TMS is used currently clinically to measure activity and function of specific brain circuits in humans [O’Reardon et al., 2007, see also].
  • Therapy: TMS and tDCS are treatment tools for various neurological conditions (e.g. migraine, stroke, Parkinson’s Disease, dystonia, tinnitus) and psychiatric conditions (e.g. clinical depression, auditory hallucinations).
  • Brain-computer interfacing: direct communication from machines to the brain; the devices should be small, with self-programmability and with closed loop to adapt to changing situations [Olesen et al., 2005].
  • Sense-synthesis: creation of new senses from coupling of data sources directly to the human brain. Data may come from artificial sensor systems (e.g., radioactivity, or radar imaging), or from the user’s own body (temperature) or brain.


HIVE is supported by the European Commission under the Future and Emerging Technologies program.

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