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Modelling microglial function with induced pluripotent stem cells: an update

Wed, 07/04/2018 - 22:00

Modelling microglial function with induced pluripotent stem cells: an update

Modelling microglial function with induced pluripotent stem cells: an update, Published online: 05 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0030-3

In recent years, several studies have reported the production of microglia-like cells from induced pluripotent stem cells. Pocock and Piers describe the methods used to produce and analyse these cells and their potential to improve our understanding of microglial function.

The role of engram cells in the systems consolidation of memory

Mon, 07/02/2018 - 22:00

The role of engram cells in the systems consolidation of memory

The role of engram cells in the systems consolidation of memory, Published online: 03 July 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0031-2

Long-term episodic memory storage has been proposed to require a reorganization of neural circuits and networks in a process known as systems consolidation. Tonegawa and colleagues discuss recent advances in our understanding of the contribution of engram cells to this process.

Sleep it off

Mon, 06/25/2018 - 22:00

Sleep it off

Sleep it off, Published online: 26 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0037-9

A set of 80 (mostly synaptic) proteins show hyperphosphorylation in sleep-deprived mice and genetically ‘sleepy’ mice, suggesting that increased phosphorylation of such proteins may be associated with sleep need.

Neuroscience of apathy and anhedonia: a transdiagnostic approach

Mon, 06/25/2018 - 22:00

Neuroscience of apathy and anhedonia: a transdiagnostic approach

Neuroscience of apathy and anhedonia: a transdiagnostic approach, Published online: 26 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0029-9

Anhedonia and apathy are syndromes affecting motivation and have been reported in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. Husain and Roiser examine the neural mechanisms underlying apathy and anhedonia within a transdiagnostic framework of effort-based decision making for reward.

Losing sleep over lipids

Thu, 06/21/2018 - 22:00

Losing sleep over lipids

Losing sleep over lipids, Published online: 22 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0033-0

In genetic fly models of Parkinson disease, disrupted lipid trafficking in neuropeptidergic neurons leads to circadian disruption.

Generation of circadian rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus

Thu, 06/21/2018 - 22:00

Generation of circadian rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus

Generation of circadian rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, Published online: 22 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0026-z

In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus acts as the principal pacemaker for circadian rhythms, which are powerful regulators of physiology and behaviour. In this Review, Hastings, Maywood and Brancaccio examine the molecular, cellular and circuit mechanisms underlying time-keeping in the SCN.

Trading places

Thu, 06/21/2018 - 22:00

Trading places

Trading places, Published online: 22 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0032-1

Insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which the APOE4 variant increases risk for Alzheimer disease are gained by comparing transcriptomes of neurons, astrocytes and microglia derived from isogenic APOE3- and APOE4-carrying iPSC cell lines.

Opioid receptors: drivers to addiction?

Thu, 06/21/2018 - 22:00

Opioid receptors: drivers to addiction?

Opioid receptors: drivers to addiction?, Published online: 22 June 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0028-x

The opioid system is central to addiction. Darcq and Kieffer review the role of these receptors in the addiction neurocircuitry, ask whether opioid receptors can be targeted to kill pain without addiction and discuss studies that bridge the translational gap in the field.

Synaptic nibbling

Mon, 04/30/2018 - 22:00

Synaptic nibbling

Synaptic nibbling, Published online: 01 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0008-1

Synaptic nibbling

Pathways to contextual control

Mon, 04/30/2018 - 22:00

Pathways to contextual control

Pathways to contextual control, Published online: 01 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0009-0

Pathways to contextual control

Continued access to investigational brain implants

Mon, 04/23/2018 - 22:00

Continued access to investigational brain implants

Continued access to investigational brain implants, Published online: 24 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0004-5

Brain implants are being trialled for their potential to ameliorate treatment-resistant conditions or to restore function. However, there are no clear guidelines for continued access to brain implants for trial participants whose symptoms improve with these devices.

Time to get tough

Tue, 04/17/2018 - 22:00

Time to get tough

Time to get tough, Published online: 18 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0005-4

In mice, aggression is regulated by the circadian suprachiasmatic nucleus through at least two neural pathways.

Feeding circuit development and early-life influences on future feeding behaviour

Mon, 04/16/2018 - 22:00

Feeding circuit development and early-life influences on future feeding behaviour

Feeding circuit development and early-life influences on future feeding behaviour, Published online: 17 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.23

The extent and contribution of maternal influence to the developing hypothalamus to later feeding behaviour remain controversial. In this Opinion, Zeltser proposes that crosstalk between developing circuits regulating different modalities of food intake shapes susceptibility to environmental challenges.

Neural repair: Getting back on your hindlimbs

Mon, 04/16/2018 - 22:00

Neural repair: Getting back on your hindlimbs

Neural repair: Getting back on your hindlimbs, Published online: 17 April 2018; doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.39

A combination of electrochemical neuromodulation of spinal leg circuits and physical training in a robotic rehabilitation system restored volitional locomotion in rodents with severe spinal cord injury.

Intrinsic mechanisms of neuronal axon regeneration

Mon, 04/16/2018 - 22:00

Intrinsic mechanisms of neuronal axon regeneration

Intrinsic mechanisms of neuronal axon regeneration, Published online: 17 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0001-8

Peripheral axon injury initiates a regenerative response that is absent in CNS axons. Mahar and Cavalli describe the mechanisms that initiate and coordinate the programme of transcriptional and epigenetic changes that enable axon regeneration in the peripheral nervous system.

The basal ganglia and the cerebellum: nodes in an integrated network

Tue, 04/10/2018 - 22:00

The basal ganglia and the cerebellum: nodes in an integrated network

The basal ganglia and the cerebellum: nodes in an integrated network, Published online: 11 April 2018; doi:10.1038/s41583-018-0002-7

The basal ganglia and the cerebellum were thought to communicate via the cerebral cortex. In this Review, Andreea Bostan and Peter Strick discuss findings indicating that these subcortical areas are in fact interconnected and, along with the cerebral cortex, form an integrated network.

HIVE is supported by the European Commission under the Future and Emerging Technologies program.

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