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Basal Ganglia: Pathways for action

Wed, 08/17/2016 - 22:00

Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17, 534 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrn.2016.118

Author: Darran Yates

Patterns of coordinated activity in the direct, striatonigral pathway and the indirect, striatopallidal pathway regulate action performance.

Cerebral cortex: Multi-modal mapping

Wed, 08/17/2016 - 22:00

Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17, 536 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrn.2016.115

Author: Darran Yates

Using data from the Human Connectome Project and a semi-automated neuroanatomical approach, a study has generated a new multi-modal parcellation of the human cerebral cortex.

Neuroimmunology: Social support from the immune system

Wed, 08/03/2016 - 22:00

Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17, 534 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrn.2016.112

Author: Yvonne Bordon

Interferon-γ acts on inhibitory neurons to regulate social behaviour in mice.

Emotion: Exciting extinction

Wed, 08/03/2016 - 22:00

Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17, 536 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrn.2016.110

Author: Katherine Whalley

GABAB receptors drive presynaptic excitation in habenula cholinergic neurons to regulate the extinction of fear memories in mice.

Spatial processing: Location, location, location

Wed, 07/27/2016 - 22:00

Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17, 535 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrn.2016.106

Author: Sian Lewis

How individual CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs) contribute to spatial memory is not well understood. Changes in intracellular Ca2+ levels in specific PCs (indicating their place field) in superficial and deep layers of CA1 in mice were measured during a spatial-navigation task and a

Neuroimmunology: Immune to the placebo effect

Wed, 07/27/2016 - 22:00

Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17, 535 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrn.2016.107

Author: Sian Lewis

Patient expectation and the activation of brain reward circuitry have a role in placebo-related clinical benefits, but the mechanism is unknown. Ben-Shaanan et al. show that chemogenetic activation of neurons in the ventral tegmental area followed by exposure to Escherichia coli resulted in

Decision making: Making your mind up

Wed, 07/27/2016 - 22:00

Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17, 535 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrn.2016.108

Author: Sian Lewis

During decision making, activity in several brain areas is increased, but their role in decision making is not known. Katz et al. recorded from neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) and middle temporal area (MT) of awake behaving rhesus macaques while they performed

Neurophysiology: Going with the flow

Wed, 07/27/2016 - 22:00

Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17, 535 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrn.2016.109

Author: Sian Lewis

Flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the ventricular system of the brain is achieved by cilia on the ependyma that lines the ventricles and is important for the transport of signalling molecules. Here, 1 μm fluorescent beads were used to track cilium-generated flow in organotypic

Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors in nervous system development and disease

Wed, 07/27/2016 - 22:00

Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17, 550 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrn.2016.86

Authors: Tobias Langenhan, Xianhua Piao & Kelly R. Monk

Members of the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (aGPCR) class have emerged as crucial regulators of nervous system development, with important implications for human health and disease. In this Review, we discuss the current understanding of aGPCR functions during key steps in neural development, including cortical

The enigmatic mossy cell of the dentate gyrus

Wed, 07/27/2016 - 22:00

Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17, 562 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrn.2016.87

Author: Helen E. Scharfman

Mossy cells comprise a large fraction of the cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, suggesting that their function in this region is important. They are vulnerable to ischaemia, traumatic brain injury and seizures, and their loss could contribute to dentate gyrus dysfunction in such conditions.

Meanings of self-grooming depend on an inverted U-shaped function with aversiveness

Wed, 07/27/2016 - 22:00

Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17, 591 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrn.2016.102

Authors: Alberto Fernández-Teruel & Celio Estanislau

The relationship between rodent self-grooming and stress and anxiety-like behaviour, and the regulation of such grooming by several emotion-linked brain areas, such as the amygdala–bed nucleus of the stria terminalis–hypothalamus circuit, are among the issues discussed by Kalueff et al. in their recent, excellent

'Stressing' rodent self-grooming for neuroscience research

Wed, 07/27/2016 - 22:00

Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17, 591 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrn.2016.103

Authors: Cai Song, Kent C. Berridge & Allan V. Kalueff

We appreciate the thoughtful Correspondence by Fernández-Teruel and Estanislau on our Review (Neurobiology of rodent self-grooming and its value for translational neuroscience. Nat. Rev. Neurosci.17, 45–59 (2016)), which raises the issue of the relationship between stress

Molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol-drinking behaviours

Wed, 07/20/2016 - 22:00

Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17, 576 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrn.2016.85

Authors: Dorit Ron & Segev Barak

The main characteristic of alcohol use disorder is the consumption of large quantities of alcohol despite the negative consequences. The transition from the moderate use of alcohol to excessive, uncontrolled alcohol consumption results from neuroadaptations that cause aberrant motivational learning and memory processes. Here, we

Gut–brain communication: Making friends with microbes

Wed, 07/06/2016 - 22:00

Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17, 533 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrn.2016.93

Author: Natasha Bray

In mice, maternal obesity induces differences in the gut microbiota of the offspring that can affect the development of social behaviour.

Epigenetic mechanisms in neurogenesis

Wed, 06/22/2016 - 22:00

Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17, 537 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrn.2016.70

Authors: Bing Yao, Kimberly M. Christian, Chuan He, Peng Jin, Guo-li Ming & Hongjun Song

In the embryonic and adult brain, neural stem cells proliferate and give rise to neurons and glia through highly regulated processes. Epigenetic mechanisms — including DNA and histone modifications, as well as regulation by non-coding RNAs — have pivotal roles in different stages of neurogenesis.

Neurodegenerative disease: Restoring balance

Sun, 06/19/2016 - 22:00

Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17, 400 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrn.2016.80

Author: Sian Lewis

Intracellular accumulation of the microtubule-associated protein tau is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease. Alternative splicing of the gene encoding tau can generate tau isoforms with three repeat domains (3R) or four repeat domains (4R), and it has been hypothesized that an excess of 4R tau

Cell biology of the neuron: Life in the slow lane

Sun, 06/19/2016 - 22:00

Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17, 400 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrn.2016.81

Author: Sian Lewis

Dynein is a molecular motor that is involved in retrograde axonal transport, but the mechanism by which it reaches distal axonal locations is incompletely understood. Here, the authors used live cell imaging techniques in the mouse brain and found that dynein undergoes anterograde transport as

Sleep and memory: Sleeping through the performance

Sun, 06/19/2016 - 22:00

Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17, 400 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrn.2016.82

Author: Sian Lewis

The consolidation of memory traces during sleep for their long-term storage in the cortex has not been demonstrated directly. Maingret et al. trained rats either in a spatial memory task that required consolidation or a task that did not. They found that hippocampo-cortical oscillatory

Neurophysiology: Going with the flow

Sun, 06/19/2016 - 22:00

Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17, 400 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrn.2016.83

Author: Sian Lewis

The spatial scale over which changes in neural activity influence local blood flow remains under debate. Here, blood vessel diameter and adjacent neuronal spiking activity in the cat visual cortex were monitored simultaneously during exposure of the animal to a range of stimulus orientations. Parenchymal

Time to connect: bringing social context into addiction neuroscience

Wed, 06/08/2016 - 22:00

Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17, 592 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrn.2016.67

Authors: Markus Heilig, David H. Epstein, Michael A. Nader & Yavin Shaham

Research on the neural substrates of drug reward, withdrawal and relapse has yet to be translated into significant advances in the treatment of addiction. One potential reason is that this research has not captured a common feature of human addiction: progressive social exclusion and marginalization.

HIVE is supported by the European Commission under the Future and Emerging Technologies program.

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